What is mastering? How is it different than mixing?

Mixing is performed prior to mastering, and focuses on adjusting the balance and presentation of the individual instruments and tracks in a song, resulting in a 2-track stereo mixdown.

Mastering is the final stage of processing on a completed stereo mix prior to release of a record. Mastering insures that the track sounds as full, present, and provides optimal impact in as many different listening environments as possible. For a good production and a solid mix, this final stage imparts the polish that makes it "sound like a record". Mastering makes a collection of songs sound like they all belong together.

Mastering is the final creative step that comes just before manufacturing a CD or selling your MP3’s online. It's a crucial step that can literally separate the hits from the rest of the market.

The mastering engineer has a fresh and objective ear, he also has the equipment, the experience and the facility to hear the tiniest details and make corrections where necessary. He prepares your music so it translates with the best optimum sound on all sound systems. He also has special skills and software to repair imperfections that may be in your mixes (audio glitches/pops/clicks, reduce noise, eliminate hum, fix undesirable errors).

You may think your mix sounds great but you will be amazed how much room there is for improvement. Mastering takes your final mix and tweaks, processes and polishes it. It's what gives depth, punch, clarity and volume to your tracks. It is part science, part craft, and part alchemy.

In addition to applying surgical Equalization, appropriate Compression, and audio restoration, the mastering engineer is also in charge of putting your songs in order, determining spacing, cross-fading, encoding song & artist information, encoding ISRC, and a bunch of other fun stuff. Mastering engineers provide the final quality control for your project.

What kinds of things can mastering fix or improve?

Mastering commonly imparts greater clarity and focus to a mix by adjusting the frequency balance of the mix. Mastering is also frequently called upon to bring a track's loudness up to commercially viable levels. It can make bass sound fuller and deeper, and can add silkiness and warmth. Mastering can add punch and impact, as well as an expensive-sounding polish and sheen to well-produced material.

There are some things mastering can't fix, however. Mastering can't fix a poor recording or an overly sloppy mix.. It will make your mix sound better than it ever has... but it will still be your production and your mix. There are limits to the mastering engineer’s powers.

Will mastering give my tracks that "radio sound"?

If the production & mix are good, the answer is a resounding YES! In many cases, mastering can also fix certain mix problems and take a decent mix over the top into stellar territory.

It's important to note, however, that many songs you hear on the radio have teams of great writers, performers, producers, programmers, and mixers behind them. Mastering doesn't create that sound on it's own.

Why pay for mastering?

With today’s digital music market open as it is, many producers/labels don’t see the need for mastering or do “it” themselves. However they forget or maybe underestimate the value a good mastering can bring to a release.

Besides the fact that the mastering engineer will have a fresh, unbiased ear (that you will not have after spending hours, days or weeks on a song), he also has the equipment, the experience and the facility to hear the tiniest details.

His musical understanding enables him to recognize important details in your song and put the focus on those details.

With so many releases every week, good sound quality is more important than ever to stand out from the rest. It’s not a coincidence that all “hits” sound as good as they do.

Professional mastering is a vital step which should be valued, respected and not be taken lightly.

What do I need to do to prepare for mastering?

First, make sure you're as happy with your final mix as possible. Listen on your monitors, headphones, car stereo, etc and address as many problems as you can. The better the mix you send me, the better the end result will be! Leave yourself plenty of time in your budget for mixing. A rushed mix may leave you unsatisfied.

Avoid compression, limiting or EQ on the master output of your final mix --unless you have mixed through this chain from the start, and it's essential to the sound & coherence of the mix. Also, make sure the master output isn't clipping. In fact, you should leave several dbs of headroom. You can, however, add a brickwall limiler (ex. L2, L3) on the Master buss/fader for "transient-peak-safety" (ex. Threshold of -1.0db, output ceiling of -0.3db).  

"For digital formats a mix peak level of -4 or -5 dBfs at 24 bit is sufficient to insure good low level resolution while preserving the headroom necessary for final dynamic and level adjustment ."

Export your mix in the highest possible bit depth (ex 24bit) and sample rate resolution (ex. 44.1kHz). This means if you recorded at 24bit / 44.1kHz (or 16/44, 16/48, 24/48, 24/88, 24/96) then mixdown to the exact bit depth and sample rate. For example, a project recorded at 24bit 44.1kHz should be exported at that same sample rate and bit (24/44) depth (not 16bit) in WAV or AIFF format. Also you should not apply dithering when making your mix. * MP3s are not suitable for mastering.

*** When you burn your mix files to a CD or DVD, please make sure that you create a DATA cd or DATA dvd, and not an audio CD with your mix files. You'd be surprised how often mix engineers make the mistake of creating an audio cd with the mix files. When you "create an audio CD" your CD creation software will convert (Nero, Roxio, Toast, etc) the DATA wav or aiff files into cd audio files. I can still work with an audio CD but it is preferred that I master from the unaffected DATA wav/aiff mix DATA files. So make sure you select the "Create DATA disc" option in your software.

*** Please note: I have more detailed Mix preparation tips that will be sent to you if we end up working together.

Can you listen to my mix and tell me if it's ready for mastering?

Yes, I'm happy to provide some basic mix feedback for clients who think they're ready (or nearly ready) for mastering. Simply contact me and upload your finished mix via your preferred transfer service (ex. WeTransfer, Dropbox, etc).

In general, the question to ask yourself is, "Am I happy with how it sounds? Have I taken it as far as I can or do I still have some work to do?" If the answer is yes, it's probably ready for mastering!

What sort of tools do you use? Analog or digital? What gear?

I have an arsenal of the finest digital mastering tools at my disposal, including processors from Waves, API, SSL, Izotope, Focusrite Liquid Mix Emulations, Soundtoys, and Brainworx, among many others. I also have outboard gear, including Tube EQ, Tube Compressors, as well as 2-Track tape, harmonic exciters, and the worlds best 2-track recorder (Korg MR2000s).

In the past many felt that you needed to incorporate analogue outboard gear to achieve a good mix or master, however, the advanced technology of the top of the line plugins have finally caught up to their analogue counterparts. These profe$$ional plugins sound equally as good as analogue gear and is not prone to hardware failure or tube degradation. Another huge benefit of digital plugins is that they are 100% recallable. Meaning if we decide we like the mastering, but wish to make additional changes, we can recall exactly what processors were used and tweak them accordingly.

*** This also helps keep my rates very affordable. Many mastering houses will charge 100-150$ per hour.

Every song is treated individually, with an eye toward insuring the final product sounds appropriate to its artistic intent and genre. I don't use presets or maximizers; Instead, I use my ears and my 15+ years of experience to insure your record sounds the best it can. Trust me on the gear, and prepare for your music to really shine.

How do I send you my files? How do we handle payment? How quick is turnaround?

Contact me through my Contact page, or send an email to for a quote and to discuss scheduling.

Then you can upload your files via your preferred service (WeTransfer, Dropbox).

Once your files are uploaded, you can send payment via electronic banking transfer through your bank or my paypal account. In both cases you use

* If you attend the mastering session then you can pay via cash or check (no master files will be available until the check clears).

Online Mastering will be completed in no more than 5 work days unless otherwise discussed in our initial correspondence (due to high volume). If you need the masters faster, be sure to discuss a "RUSH" package, in which case the masters will be delivered in 48 hours (at an additional charge).

When mastering is complete, samples are sent to you for approval. Once approved, full resolution WAV masters can be downloaded (no additional charge) or delivered on physical CD via mail (with an additional cost for media & shipping).

MFiT (Mastered for iTunes) Certified


Mastering time will vary depending on a number of things: number of songs, total running time, mix format and of course the type of work required (not all recordings are created equal). Please feel free to Email me for a quote (

Off hour "flat rates" could be available for independent artists/projects. Flat rates are usually for un-attended sessions.
This is at the discretion and availability of the engineer. Not an option if you are in a rush and have a fixed release date.

Media prices:

PMCD master 25$ (This is the special CD that is sent to the replication / duplication facility for CD pressing)
Reference cd-r 5$ (This is the CD you listen to after the initial mastering in order to give feedback)
DVD Session archive including hi resolution masters 50$ (Unfortunately, we're not able to keep your projects indefinitely. Backups are money well spent).
High-Quality MP3s DATA cd 20$